Can all actions be challenged?
Only character actions (those that require you to claim a card in front of you) can be challenged.
Which comes first, challenges or counter-actions?
Challenges come first. Once any challenge has been resolved, then someone can propose a counter-action, which can itself be challenged.
Who goes first?
Officially, whoever won the last game. Otherwise, you can choose any way you like.
How do I win?
By being the last player to have at least one face-down card (influence) in front of you when all other players have been eliminated.
What is 'influence'?
Your 'influence' is just the cards you have in front of you.
When does the game end?
The game ends when only one player is left with a card in front of them.
Can I give or lend coins to other players?
Can I show cards to other players?
Not unless the rules specifically tell you to reveal a card.
When you have to lose a card, where does it go?
Keep it face up on the table in front of you. It no longer counts as your card, but this allows everyone else to see which cards have been taken out of the game.
For actions that target a player, when do I announce the target?
Right up front
Announce the target when you announce the action, before any challenges or counter-actions are declared.
Which happens first, challenges or counter-actions?
A single action can be both challenged and (if the challenge fails) counter-acted. Resolve the challenge first.
Can I pass instead of performing an action?
If an action fails because it's successfully challenged, do you still have to pay the cost of the action?
No -- keep the coins you would have paid. (However, if the action is counter-acted, you must still pay. This only applies to Assassinate.)
Can you challenge a counter-action?
Yes, using the same rules as for challenging a character action.
Can you counteract a counter-action?
Do you have to be targeted by an action in order to challenge it?
No, any player can challenge any other player's action.
Do you have to be targeted by an action in order to declare a counter-action?
To counter-act the Assassin (assassination) or the Captain (stealing), you have to be the target of the action. But anyone can counter-act the Duke (foreign aid).
Are coins kept public?
Yes, everyone can see how many coins you have.
Is it possible to lose two cards in one turn?
Yes, you can be knocked out instantly by an Assassinate action. This can happen in two ways: (1) you try to challenge the player claiming the Assassin, and lose the challenge; (2) you claim the Contessa to counter-act the Assassinate action, then you are challenged on this and lose the challenge. In either case, you lose 1 card for the lost challenge and then the other from the Assassinate action.
If I have to lose a card, can I choose which one?
Yes, you can choose which card to lose if you're targeted by a successful Assassinate or Coup action. You can even choose which card to lose if you lose a challenge -- don't reveal a card, just choose one to lose.
What happens if I have to lose two cards and I only have one?
It doesn't matter. You are out of the game anyway!
When I use the Ambassador, can I swap both my cards?
Yes, you can swap 0 or more cards.
When I use the Ambassador, are other players supposed to be able to see if I swap cards or not?
No. You can choose to swap 0, 1 or 2 of your cards (if you have that many), but other players shouldn't know which option you choose. The best method is to mix up all the cards in your hand and then choose which one(s) to keep. All the other players should be able to see is that you return 2 cards to the deck.